top of page

Trauma, Bereavement and Grief Network

Project group:

Geert E. Smid, University of Humanistic Studies, Utrecht, and ARQ National Psychotrauma Centre, Diemen, the Netherlands

Paul A. Boelen, Utrecht University, Utrecht, and ARQ National Psychotrauma Centre, Diemen, the Netherlands

Hannah Comtesse, Catholic University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt, Eichstaett, Germany

Simon Groen, De Evenaar, GGZ Drenthe, The Netherlands

Lonneke I.M. Lenferink, University of Twente, University of Groningen, and Utrecht University

Clare Killikelly, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland


Join the network!

Would you like to hear more about a project or explore collaboration opportunities? Please contact the contact persons for each project (see below) or Geert Smid by email:


Traumatic Grief Inventory-Self Report Plus (TGI-SR+)

The TGI-SR+ is a 22-item measure to assess prolonged grief disorder as defined in ICD-11 and DSM-5-TR and persistent complex bereavement disorder as defined in DSM-5 (Lenferink et al., 2022), an extended version of the 18-item TGI-SR (Boelen et al., 2019; Boelen & Smid, 2017).


This measure is available in 11 languages:

African French - download pdf

Canadian French - download pdf

Chinese download pdf

Dutch (incl. manual) - download pdf

English (incl. manual) - download pdf

German - download pdf

Greek - download pdf

Norwegian - download pdf

Spanish - download pdf

Swedish - download pdf

Turkish - download pdf

All can also be downloaded for free via

A version that is suitable for multiple loss facilitates the use in humanitarian crisis situations, following mass trauma, and in refugee populations is available in English and Dutch.

Collaborate – further translations and validation studies are welcome.

Contact Lonneke Lenferink by email:

  • Boelen, P. A., Djelantik, A. A. A. M., de Keijser, J., Lenferink, L. I. M., & Smid, G. E. (2019). Further validation of the Traumatic Grief Inventory-Self Report (TGI-SR): A measure of persistent complex bereavement disorder and prolonged grief disorder. Death Studies, 43(6), 351–364.

  • Boelen, P. A., & Smid, G. E. (2017). The Traumatic Grief Inventory Self Report version (TGI-SR): Introduction and preliminary psychometric evaluation. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 22(3), 196–212.

  • Lenferink, L. I. M., Eisma, M. C., Smid, G. E., de Keijser, J., & Boelen, P. A. (2022). Valid measurement of DSM-5 persistent complex bereavement disorder and DSM-5-TR and ICD-11 prolonged grief disorder: The Traumatic Grief Inventory-Self Report Plus (TGI-SR+). Comprehensive Psychiatry, 112, 152281.

The Bereavement and Grief Cultural Formulation Interview (BG-CFI)

The Bereavement and Grief Cultural Formulation Interview (BG-CFI) consists of 10 brief, person-centered, and open-ended questions to assess (1) cultural traditions associated with death, bereavement, and mourning, (2) cultural meaning of encounters with the deceased, and (3) help-seeking and coping. It was designed as a supplementary module to the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). The BG-CFI aims to validate diagnosis of grief disorders, support treatment negotiation, increase rapport between patient and clinician, facilitate sharing of emotionally sensitive information, enhance the patient’s ability to find meaningful ways of dealing with the loss, and help patient and therapist to integrate meaningful rituals in grief treatment.

Collaborate – feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of the BG-CFI need further investigation.

Contact Geert Smid by email:

  • Smid, G. E., Groen, S., de la Rie, S. M., Kooper, S., & Boelen, P. A. (2018). Toward cultural assessment of grief and grief-related psychopathology. Psychiatric Services, 69(10), 1050–1052.

  • Smid, G. E., Groen, S., de la Rie, S. M., Kooper, S., & Boelen, P. A. (2019). Culturele evaluatie van verlies en rouw. Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie, 61(12), 879–883.

  • Lewis-Fernández, R., Aggarwal, N. K., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2020). The Cultural Formulation Interview: Progress to date and future directions. Transcultural Psychiatry, 57(4), 487–496.




Trauma, Bereavement and Grief


Let’s talk about grief

Recognizing traumatic grief among patients with common mental disorders and developing culturally sensitive psycho-education about grief

The recognition that the loss of a loved one may result in traumatic grief (prolonged grief disorder with (symptoms of) PTSD and depression) has gained broad attention recently. Traumatic grief may impact the identity of the bereaved person and disturb daily functioning to such a degree that mental health treatment focused on traumatic grief is required. Because traumatic grief symptoms may resemble anxiety, depressive, and trauma- or stressor-related disorder symptoms, clinicians may overlook that the symptoms related to grief. Moreover, the divergent expression of traumatic grief in culturally diverse patients may further complicate recognition, although this has not been investigated. This study focuses on the prevalence of traumatic grief across outpatient clinics visited by both Dutch and immigrant patients diagnosed with anxiety, depressive, and trauma- and stressor-related disorders. Further, clinicians’ recognition of traumatic grief symptoms will be investigated, and a culturally sensitive psycho-education module will be developed on traumatic grief support through client expert collaboration. Symptoms of traumatic grief are investigated using the TGI-SR+, the BG-CFI, and debriefing instruments to be assessed among patients, interviews and debriefing instruments among clinicians and focus groups with client experts to adjust psycho-education to the patients’ needs. Hypotheses are that traumatic grief is more prevalent among patients who are referred because of PTSD, anxiety and depression symptoms, that clinicians do not recognize that symptoms may be a result of traumatic grief, and that client expert informed psycho-education will more adequately meet the patient’s needs.

Collaborate – culturally sensitive psychoeducational material about traumatic grief is needed worldwide.

Contact Simon Groen by email:

  • Groen, S. P. N., Menninga, M. C., Cath, D. C., & Smid, G. E. (2022). Let’s talk about grief: Protocol of a study on the recognition and psychoeducation of prolonged grief disorder in outpatients with common mental disorders. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13,944233.


Ambiguous Loss Inventory Plus (ALI+)


Project group: Hannah Comtesse, Geert Smid, Paul Boelen, Sophie Hengst, Simone de la Rie, Clare Killikelly, Lonneke Lenferink.

Ambiguous loss is a person's profound sense of loss and sadness that may occur due to the disappearance of a significant person but is not associated with the death of a loved one. People may go missing in the context of natural disasters, displacement, armed conflicts, or forced disappearance. Several studies indicate elevated levels of psychological distress in relatives of disappeared persons. Still, ambiguous loss due to disappearance seems to be a specific type of loss as it is accompanied by persistent uncertainty about the fate of the disappeared person, which hampers closure.


Relatives of missing persons may have various Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) needs. Up to now, no questionnaire exists that specifically captures the psychological consequences of ambiguous loss after the disappearance of a significant other. To close this gap, we have started a collaboration to develop, evaluate and translate the Ambiguous Loss Inventory Plus (ALI+).

Clare Killikelly and colleagues translated the Ambiguous Loss Inventory Plus (ALI+) in Arabic, both Classical Arabic and Modern Arabic. More translations will follow.

Ambiguous Loss Inventory Plus:

ALI+ English

ALI+ Arabic - Classical

ALI+ Arabic - Modern

ALI+ Dutch

ALI+ German

ALI+ Spanish

All available translations are also freely available through Open Science Forum:

Collaborate – the ALI needs translation and validation in many languages.

Contact Hannah Comtesse by email:


  • Comtesse, H., Killikelly, C., Hengst, S.M.C., Lenferink, L.I.M., de la Rie, S.M., Boelen, P.A., & Smid, G. E. (2023). The Ambiguous Loss Inventory Plus (ALI+): Introduction of a Measure of Psychological Reactions to the Disappearance of a Loved Person. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(6), 5117.

The Grief Assessment toolbox for refugees: development and implementation in Syrian refugees

Collaborators: Clare Killikelly, Eva Heim, Alexandra Reymond, Olivia Gabban, Rahel Bachem, Andreas Maercker.

Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is a new and significant addition to the ICD-11 WHO disease classification system. As a new disorder, it stands to improve diagnostic precision, improve communication among health professionals and patients, improve access to care and lead to effective treatments and intervention. However, it remains to be determined if the ICD-11 criteria for disordered grief are applicable to different cultural groups. We used a multi-step questionnaire development process with two main phases 1) the content development of the Grief Assessment toolbox and 2) the validation of a PGD questionnaire in 121 migrants. The development of the Grief assessment toolbox involved two focus groups with clinicians and health care workers and six cognitive interviews with bereaved Syrian refugees. The resulting PGD grief measure (IPGDS migrant supplement) was then validated in 121 migrants. Psychometric analysis confirmed good criterion validity, excellent convergent validity with another measure assessing disturbed grief, and excellent reliability for both scales. The results indicate that the IPGDS migrant supplement is a reliable and valid measure of core grief symptoms as well as items adapted specifically for migrants.

Collaborate – we seek further collaborations to translate and validate the toolkit in other refugee populations.

Contact Clare Killikelly by email:

bottom of page